Mr Adam H. Ross, MBChB, FRCOphth, FHEA, CertMedEd, Ophthalmologist
Nuffield Heatlh Spire Healthcare Circle Health Group
0117 369 1179 (Bristol) 01225 220 295 (Bath) [javascript protected email address]
Home > Patient Info > Conditions and Procedures > Conditions



Cataract is a condition which causes clouding of the lens in the eye resulting in blurry vision. The lens is situated behind the iris, the dark portion of the eye, and is not visible. When a cataract occurs, the lens becomes cloudy and is seen as a white cloudy ball in the centre of the iris.

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Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetes is a chronic disease in which your blood glucose or sugar levels are very high. Uncontrolled levels pose a risk to associated heart, kidney and eye disorders. People with diabetes may develop three major eye problems – glaucoma, cataract and retinopathy.

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Glaucoma is an eye condition that results in progressive vision loss due to the increased intraocular pressure and subsequent optic nerve damage. Optic nerve is a bundle of nerve fibres that carries visual images or signals from the eyes to the brain.

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Itchy Eyes/Ocular Pruritus - General

Itchy eyes are usually caused from allergies affecting the conjunctiva (tissue lining the white of the eye) due to exposure to allergens such as pollen, dust and pet dander. It can also be caused by an allergic reaction to your contact lens solution.

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Uvea is the middle layer of the eye situated between the retina and the sclera, the white layer of the eye. It extends from the back of the eye towards the front and includes the iris, coloured part of the eye, choroid layer and the ciliary body.

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Macular Hole

A macular hole is a defect in the macula, the central part of the retina (light receptive tissue of the eye). The macula is responsible for sharp central vision required for reading, driving, etc.

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Retinal Artery or Vein Occlusion

Retina is the light sensitive layer present at the back of the eye. It contains nerve cells which convert the focused image to an electrical signal which is then transmitted to the brain. These nerve cells require a continuous blood supply to meet their demand of oxygen and nutrients.

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Optic Neuropathy

Optic nerves carry information from the eyes to the brain. Damage caused to the optic nerves disrupts the vision of the eye, and is termed optic neuropathy.

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Refractive Errors – General

Refractive errors are common vision problems in which your eyes are not able to focus clearly on an object.

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Retinal Tear

The retina is a tissue present at the back of the eye that is responsible for vision. Severe near-sightedness, eye injury, cataract surgery or familial history may cause a retinal tear.

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Temporal Arteritis

Temporal arteries are the blood vessels around the temple (side of the head behind the eyes) that supply blood to the head and brain. Temporal arteritis is a condition in which these blood vessels are damaged or inflamed.

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Ocular Ischemic Syndrome

Ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) is a rare condition characterized by abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eye causing visual loss and pain.

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Chalazion – General

A chalazion is a painless inflammation characterized by a lump or nodule formed on the upper or lower eyelid. A chalazion is non-communicable and usually does not affect vision, but a large lump can put pressure on the eye.

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Subconjunctival Haemorrhage

The conjunctiva is a tissue that covers the white part of the eye, and consists of blood vessels and nerves. Subconjunctival haemorrhage is bleeding under the conjunctiva caused by the rupture of these blood vessels.

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Burning Eyes – General

A burning sensation in the eye is often due to an underlying eye condition such as dry eye, blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid) or pink eye (conjunctivitis).

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Spots, Flashes & Floaters

Floaters are movable spots that can appear in your field of vision. Eye floaters may look like black or grey particles that move along with eye movement. Flashes are the perception of brief arcs or flashes of light that you may experience even in a dark room where no light is actually flashing.

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Hyperopia or Farsightedness – General

Hyperopia or far-sightedness is a vision abnormality characterised by difficulty in seeing nearby objects, which appear blurry, while distant objects appear clear. The condition is usually hereditary and present at birth.

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Vision disorders are the conditions which cause impairment in the sense of vision. These disorders are often caused by certain eye diseases or structural abnormalities of the eye balls.

For more information about Astigmatism, click on below tab.

Vitreous Haemorrhage

Vitreous haemorrhage refers to blood in the vitreous of the eye that can lead to loss of vision and in severe cases blindness.

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Watery Eyes

Watery eye or epiphora is generally seen in young babies and older people. In this condition, tears accumulate in the eyes due to a blockage in one or both tear ducts. As a result, excessive tears trickle down the face instead of draining from the tear ducts.

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Myopic (Near-Sightedness)

Myopia (near-sightedness) is a major cause of retinal weakness. The retina is the light receptive layer at the back of the eye. With severe myopia, the retina becomes thinner and weaker causing lattice degeneration (oval or linear patches of retinal thinning) or retinal holes/tears.

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Dry Eye

Dry eye is a condition characterized by the lack of adequate lubrication for the eye. Tears play an important role in lubricating and nourishing the outer surface (cornea) of the eye.

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Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration is a condition of the eye where the macula deteriorates. The macula is the central portion of the retina responsible for central vision, which helps in focusing and viewing details and colours.

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Conjunctivitis, commonly referred to as pink eye, is a common condition affecting one or both eyes. It is characterized by inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane covering the white of the eyes and the inner surface of the eyelids.

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